linux command


Linux Command – ls ใช้ในการแสดงข้อมูลภายใน directory



1. แสดงข้อมูลภายใน directory

ls <path>

$ ls
file1 file2
$ cd ..
$ ls ./test1
file1 file2


2. แสดงข้อมูล file, directory, ขนาด, เวลา

ls -l

$ ls -l
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 49 May 8 16:14 file1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 70 May 8 16:15 file2


3. แสดงข้อมูลที่ถูกซ่อนไว้

ls -a

$ ls -a
. .. file1 file2


4. แสดงข้อมูลแบบเรียกกลับหลัง

ls -r

$ ls -r
file2 file1


5. แสดงข้อมูลทั้งหมดแบบเรียงตามเวลากลับหลัง (นิยมมากสุด)

ls -ltr

$ ls -ltr
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 49 May 8 16:14 file1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 70 May 8 16:15 file2



 ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...



เป็นคำสั่งที่ใช้ในการแสดงข้อมูลภายใน directory



 Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

 -a, --all
 do not ignore entries starting with .

 -A, --almost-all
 do not list implied . and ..

 with -l, print the author of each file

 -b, --escape
 print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

 scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below

 -B, --ignore-backups
 do not list implied entries ending with ~

 -c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first

 -C list entries by columns

 colorize the output; WHEN can be 'always' (default if omitted), 'auto', or 'never'; more info below

 -d, --directory
 list directories themselves, not their contents

 -D, --dired
 generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

 -f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

 -F, --classify
 append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

 likewise, except do not append '*'

 across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

 like -l --time-style=full-iso

 -g like -l, but do not list owner

 group directories before files;

 can be augmented with a --sort option, but any use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

 -G, --no-group
 in a long listing, don't print group names

 -h, --human-readable
 with -l and/or -s, print human readable sizes (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

 --si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

 -H, --dereference-command-line
 follow symbolic links listed on the command line

 follow each command line symbolic link

 that points to a directory

 do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

 append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

 -i, --inode
 print the index number of each file

 -I, --ignore=PATTERN
 do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

 -k, --kibibytes
 default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage

 -l use a long listing format

 -L, --dereference
 when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself

 -m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

 -n, --numeric-uid-gid
 like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

 -N, --literal
 print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

 -o like -l, but do not list group information

 -p, --indicator-style=slash
 append / indicator to directories

 -q, --hide-control-chars
 print ? instead of nongraphic characters

 show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is a terminal)

 -Q, --quote-name
 enclose entry names in double quotes

 use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape

 -r, --reverse
 reverse order while sorting

 -R, --recursive
 list subdirectories recursively

 -s, --size
 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

 -S sort by file size, largest first

 sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)

 with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if --sort=time (new‐
 est first)

 with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1
 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

 -t sort by modification time, newest first

 -T, --tabsize=COLS
 assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

 -u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first

 -U do not sort; list entries in directory order

 -v natural sort of (version) numbers within text

 -w, --width=COLS
 set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit

 -x list entries by lines instead of by columns

 -X sort alphabetically by entry extension

 -Z, --context
 print any security context of each file

 -1 list one file per line. Avoid '\n' with -q or -b

 --help display this help and exit

 output version information and exit

 The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).

 Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with --color=never. With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a ter‐
 minal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.






คำสั่ง Unix – Linux Command

Linux, Unix


Author: Suphakit Annoppornchai


2 Thoughts to “ls – Linux Command คำสั่งแสดงข้อมูลภายใน directory”

  1. […] locatedb(5), updatedb(1), xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), whereis, […]

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