linux command


Linux Command – units ใช้ในการในการแปลงค่าหน่วยวัด



unit prompt

$ units
Currency exchange rates from on 2015-10-14 
2919 units, 109 prefixes, 88 nonlinear units

You have: mile
You want: km
 * 1.609344
 / 0.62137119
You have: furlongs per fortnight
You want: m/s  
        * 0.00016630986
        / 6012.8727
You have: (400 W/m^2 / stefanboltzmann)^(1/4)
You have:
        Definition: 289.80882 K
You have: 17 yards + 2 feet + 5 inches
You want: meter
        * 16.2814
        / 0.06141978



 units [options] [from-unit [to-unit]]






 -c, --check
 Check that all units and prefixes defined in the units data file reduce to primitive units. Print a list of all units that cannot be reduced. Also display some other diag‐
 nostics about suspicious definitions in the units data file. Only definitions active in the current locale are checked. You should always run 'units' with this option
 after modifying a units data file.

 --check-verbose, --verbose-check
 Like the '--check' option, this option prints a list of units that cannot be reduced. But to help find unit definitions that cause endless loops, it lists the units as
 they are checked. If 'units' hangs, then the last unit to be printed has a bad definition. Only definitions active in the current locale are checked.

 -d ndigits, --digits ndigits
 Set the number of significant digits in the output to the value specified (which must be greater than zero). For example, '-d 12' sets the number of significant digits to
 12. With exponential output 'units' displays one digit to the left of the decimal point and eleven digits to the right of the decimal point. On most systems, the maximum
 number of internally meaningful digits is 15; if you specify a greater number than your system's maximum, 'units' will print a warning and set the number to the largest
 meaningful value. To directly set the maximum value, give an argument of 'max' (e.g., '-d max'). Be aware, of course, that ``significant'' here refers only to the display
 of numbers; if results depend on physical constants not known to this precision, the physically meaningful precision may be less than that shown. The '--digits' option con‐
 flicts with the '--output-format' option.

 -e, --exponential
 Set the numeric output format to exponential (i.e., scientific notation), like that used in the Unix 'units' program. The default precision is eight significant digits
 (seven digits to the right of the decimal point); this can be changed with the '--digits' option. The '--exponential' option conflicts with the '--output-format' option.

 -o format, --output-format format
 This option affords complete control over the numeric output format using the specified format. The format is a single floating point numeric format for the 'printf()' func‐
 tion in the C programming language. All compilers support the format types 'g' and 'G' to specify significant digits, 'e' and 'E' for scientific notation, and 'f' for
 fixed-point decimal. The ISO C99 standard introduced the 'F' type for fixed-point decimal and the 'a' and 'A' types for hexadecimal floating point; these types are allowed
 with compilers that support them. The default format is '%.8g'; for greater precision, you could specify '-o %.15g'. See Numeric Output Format and the documentation for
 'printf()' for more detailed descriptions of the format specification. The '--output-format' option affords the greatest control of the output appearance, but requires at
 least rudimentary knowledge of the 'printf()' format syntax. If you don't want to bother with the 'printf()' syntax, you can specify greater precision more simply with the
 '--digits' option or select exponential format with '--exponential'. The '--output-format' option is incompatible with the '--exponential' and '--digits' options.

 -f filename, --file filename
 Instruct 'units' to load the units file filename. You can specify up to 25 units files on the command line. When you use this option, 'units' will load only the files you
 list on the command line; it will not load the standard file or your personal units file unless you explicitly list them. If filename is the empty string ('-f ""'), the
 default units file (or that specified by 'UNITSFILE') will be loaded in addition to any others specified with '-f'.

 -L logfile, --log logfile
 Save the results of calculations in the file logfile; this can be useful if it is important to have a record of unit conversions or other calculations that are to be used
 extensively or in a critical activity such as a program or design project. If logfile exits, the new results are appended to the file. This option is ignored when 'units'
 is used non-interactively. See Logging Calculations for a more detailed description and some examples.

 -H filename, --history filename
 Instruct 'units' to save history to filename, so that a record of your commands is available for retrieval across different 'units' invocations. To prevent the history from
 being saved set filename to the empty string ('-H ""'). This option has no effect if readline is not available.

 -h, --help
 Print out a summary of the options for 'units'.

 -m, --minus
 Causes '-' to be interpreted as a subtraction operator. This is the default behavior.

 -p, --product
 Causes '-' to be interpreted as a multiplication operator when it has two operands. It will act as a negation operator when it has only one operand: '(-3)'. By default '-'
 is treated as a subtraction operator.

 Causes '*' to have the old-style precedence, higher than the precedence of division so that '1/2*3' will equal '1/6'.

 Forces '*' to have the new (default) precedence that follows the usual rules of algebra: the precedence of '*' is the same as the precedence of '/', so that '1/2*3' will
 equal '3/2'.

 Give compact output featuring only the conversion factor. This turns off the '--verbose' option.

 -q, --quiet, --silent
 Suppress prompting of the user for units and the display of statistics about the number of units loaded.

 -n, --nolists
 Disable conversion to unit lists.

 -r, --round
 When converting to a combination of units given by a unit list, round the value of the last unit in the list to the nearest integer.

 -S, --show-factor
 When converting to a combination of units specified in a list, always show a non-unity factor before a unit that begins with a fraction with a unity denominator. By
 default, if the unit in a list begins with fraction of the form 1|x and its multiplier is an integer other than 1, the fraction is given as the product of the multiplier and
 the numerator (e.g., '3|8 in' rather than '3 * 1|8 in'). In some cases, this is not what is wanted; for example, the results for a cooking recipe might show '3 * 1|2 cup'
 as '3|2 cup'. With the '--show-factor' option, a result equivalent to 1.5 cups will display as '3 * 1|2 cup' rather than '3|2 cup'. A user-specified fractional unit with a
 numerator other than 1 is never overridden, however—if a unit list specifies '3|4 cup;1|2 cup', a result equivalent to 1 1/2 cups will always be shown as '2 * 3|4 cup'
 whether or not the '--show-factor' option is given.

 -s, --strict
 Suppress conversion of units to their reciprocal units. For example, 'units' will normally convert hertz to seconds because these units are reciprocals of each other. The
 strict option requires that units be strictly conformable to perform a conversion, and will give an error if you attempt to convert hertz to seconds.

 -1, --one-line
 Give only one line of output (the forward conversion). Do not print the reverse conversion. If a reciprocal conversion is performed then 'units' will still print the
 ``reciprocal conversion'' line.

 -t, --terse
 Give terse output when converting units. This option can be used when calling 'units' from another program so that the output is easy to parse. This option has the com‐
 bined effect of these options: '--strict' '--quiet' '--one-line' '--compact'. When combined with '--version' it produces a display showing only the program name and version

 -v, --verbose
 Give slightly more verbose output when converting units. When combined with the '-c' option this gives the same effect as '--check-verbose'. When combined with '--version'
 produces a more detailed output, equivalent to the '--info' option.

 -V, --version
 Print the program version number, tell whether the 'readline' library has been included, tell whether UTF-8 support has been included; give the locale, the location of the
 default units data file, and the location of the personal units data file; indicate if the personal units data file does not exist.

 When given in combination with the '--terse' option, the program prints only the version number and exits.

 When given in combination with the '--verbose' option, the program, the '--version' option has the same effect as the '--info' option below.

 -I, --info
 Print the information given with the '--version' option, show the pathname of the units program, show the status of the 'UNITSFILE' and 'MYUNITSFILE' environment variables,
 and additional information about how 'units' locates the related files. On systems running Microsoft Windows, the status of the 'UNITSLOCALE' environment variable and
 information about the related locale map are also given. This option is usually of interest only to developers and administrators, but it can sometimes be useful for trou‐

 Combining the '--version' and '--verbose' options has the same effect as giving '--info'.

 -U, --unitsfile
 Print the location of the default units data file and exit; if the file cannot be found, print ``Units data file not found''.

 -l locale, --locale locale
 Print the information given with the '--version' option, show the Force a specified locale such as 'en_GB' to get British definitions by default. This overrides the locale
 determined from system settings or environment variables. See Locale for a description of locale format.





คำสั่ง Unix – Linux Command

Linux, Unix


Author: Suphakit Annoppornchai


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